The species of mosquito that transmits Zika is the same as the mosquito that transmits Dengue, Chikungunya and Yellow Fever.2
Risk areas for Zika
By being bitten by infected mosquitoes which carry the virus. The disease can also be caught through sex with an infected partner.2
Many countries in the Pacific region, South and Central America, the Caribbean, parts of Africa, and parts of south and southeast Asia (see map).1,3,4
Symptoms appear between 3-14 days and are generally mild.2 They can last 2-7 days and include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle pain, joint pain, feeling of being generally unwell, and headache.2
Some babies born to women who become infected have severely abnormal brain development. Possible links with a range of other complications are being investigated.2
You can take the following precautions to help reduce your risk of infection:
- Visit your nearest convenient pharmacy or specialist travel health clinic for a risk assessment before your trip
- If pregnant or intending to become pregnant women should take extra care to avoid being bitten, and try to avoid becoming pregnant while travelling1
- Use a recommended insect repellent containing either Picaridin, DEET, PMD or OLE (oil of lemon eucalyptus), IR3535 or 2-undecanone5
- Wear appropriate clothing (e.g. loose fitting long-sleeved clothes, long trousers, socks and shoes) to minimise exposed skin6
- Use insecticide-treated mosquito nets if you are sleeping or resting in accommodation without air conditioning or sleeping outdoors during the day or night1,6
- Practise safer sex (including using condoms)2
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- Conditions. Zika. February 2022. Available online: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/zika/ (Last accessed May 2023)
- World Health Organization. Factsheet. Zika Virus. December 2022. Available at: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/zika-virus (Last accessed May 2023)
- Gov.uk Guidance. Zika virus: country specific risk. July 2019. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/zika-virus-country-specific-risk (Last accessed May 2023)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Virus. Areas at Risk for Zika. Zika cases in the United States. January 2023. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/zika/reporting/index.html (Last accessed May 2023)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Yellow Book 2024. Section 4 Environmental Hazards & Risks. Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods. May 2023. Available online: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2024/environmental-hazards-risks/mosquitoes-ticks-and-other-arthropods (Last accessed May 2023)
- Public Health England. Mosquito bite avoidance for travellers. January 2023. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/mosquito-bite-avoidance-for-travellers (Last accessed May 2023)
UK-BOTB-2100033 (v2.0) May 2023